BITV Annex (Part 1)

This document does not contain any provisions on basic technical equipment which is used to provide electronic content and information (servers, routers, network architectures, operating systems etc.) nor with regard to user agents to be used. The requirements and conditions refer solely to the electronic content and information offered to the user.

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July 17, 2002, BMAS

The standards and requirements of this annex are generally based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 of the World Wide Web Consortium of May 5, 1999.

The basic technical terms contained in part 1 of this annex are underlined where they first appear in the text and explained in part 2 of this annex (glossary).

Priority I

Standard 1For each auditory or visual content, suitable equivalent contents have to be provided fulfilling the same purpose or function as the original content.
Requirement 1.1For each non-text element, a text equivalent has to be provided. This applies in particular to: images, graphical representations of text including symbols, image map regions, animations (e.g. animated GIFs), applets and programmatic objects, art based on the use of characters and symbols of the ASCII code (ASCII art), frames, scripts, images used as list bullets, spacers, graphical buttons, sounds (played with or without user interaction), stand-alone audio files, audio tracks of video and video.
Requirement 1.2For each active region of a server-side image map, redundant text hyperlinks have to be provided.
Requirement 1.3For multimedia presentations, an auditory description of the important information of the visual track has to be provided.
Requirement 1.4For any time-based multimedia presentation (in particular movies or animations), equivalent alternatives (e.g. captions or auditory descriptions of the visual track) have to be synchronized with the presentation.
Standard 2Texts and graphics have to be understandable also when viewed without color.
Requirement 2.1All information conveyed with color also has to be available without color, e.g. from context or the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Requirement 2.2Images have to be designed in a way that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast on a black and white screen and when viewed by persons having color deficits.
Standard 3Markup language (in particular HTML) and style sheets have to be used according to their respective specifications and formal definitions.
Requirement 3.1If an appropriate markup language exists, it has to be used, rather than images, in order to convey information.
Requirement 3.2Documents produced on the basis of markup languages have to be created and declared in a way as to validate to published formal grammars.
Requirement 3.3Style sheets have to be used in order to control the layout and presentation of documents produced on the basis of markup languages.
Requirement 3.4Relative rather than absolute units have to be used in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values.
Requirement 3.5Header elements have to be used in order to convey the structure of documents produced on the basis of markup languages.
Requirement 3.6In order to represent lists and list elements, the markup elements intended for this purpose have to be used.
Requirement 3.7Quotes have to be identified by the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Standard 4Special linguistic features such as a change of language or abbreviations have to be identified.
Requirement 4.1Changes in the primary natural language have to be identified.
Standard 5Tables have to be described using the markup elements intended for this purpose and may generally only be used as data tables.
Requirement 5.1For data tables, row and column headers have to be identified using the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Requirement 5.2For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, data cells and header cells have to be associated using the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Requirement 5.3Tables may not be used for layout unless they can also be represented in a linearized form.
Requirement 5.4If tables are used for layout, no structural markup for the purpose of visual formatting may be used.
Standard 6Webpages have to be usable also if newer technologies are not supported by the user agent used or if they are deactivated.
Requirement 6.1It has to be ensured that documents produced on the basis of markup language are usable when the associated style sheets are deactivated.
Requirement 6.2It has to be ensured that equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content changes.
Requirement 6.3It has to be ensured that documents produced on the basis of markup language are usable when scripts, applets or other programmatic objects are deactivated.
Requirement 6.4It has to be ensured that event handlers for scripts, applets or other programmatic objects are input device-independent.
Requirement 6.5Dynamic content has to be accessible. If this can only be achieved at disproportionate expense, equivalent alternative pages without dynamic content have to be provided.
Standard 7Time-sensitive content changes have to be controllable for the user.
Requirement 7.1Screen flickering has to be avoided.
Requirement 7.2Blinking content has to be avoided.
Requirement 7.3Movement in documents produced on the basis of markup languages either has to be avoided or mechanisms have to be provided allowing the user to freeze moving or changing content.
Requirement 7.4Automatic periodic refresh of documents produced on the basis of markup languages has to be avoided.
Requirement 7.5The use of markup elements for automatic redirects has to be avoided. If automatic redirects are indispensable, the server has to be configured in a way as to perform the redirects.
Standard 8Direct accessibility of user interfaces imbedded in webpages has to be ensured.
Requirement 8.1Programmatic elements (in particular scripts and applets) have to be designed in a way as to be directly accessible or compatible with assistive technologies.
Standard 9Webpages have to be designed in a way as to work with functions which are usable independently of input or output devices.
Requirement 9.1Client-side image maps have to be provided, unless the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.
Requirement 9.2It has to be possible to operate any element which has its own interface in a device-independent manner.
Requirement 9.3In scripts, logical event handlers have to be specified rather than device-dependent ones.
Standard 10The usability of assistive technologies and browsers which no longer correspond to the state of the art has to be ensured, if this does not cause disproportionate expense.
Requirement 10.1The appearance of pop-ups or other windows has to be avoided. The user has to be informed of changes of the current window.
Requirement 10.2For all form controls with implicitly associated labels, it has to be ensured that the labels are properly positioned.
Standard 11The technologies used for creating a webpage are to be publicly accessible and fully documented, such as the technologies developed by the World Wide Web Consortium.
Requirement 11.1Publicly accessible and fully documented technologies in their respective latest version have to be used, if this is appropriate to fulfill the envisaged task.
Requirement 11.2The use of functions which are outdated due to the existence of new versions has to be avoided.
Requirement 11.3If in spite of taking best efforts it is not possible to create a barrier-free webpage, an alternative, barrier-free page has to be provided containing equivalent functionality and up-to-date information, technical possibilities permitting. If non-barrier-free technologies are used, these have to be replaced as soon as technological developments have produced equivalent accessible solutions which are available and usable.
Standard 12The user has to be provided context and orientation information.
Requirement 12.1Each frame has to be titled in order to facilitate identification and navigation.
Requirement 12.2The purpose of frames and their relation to each other has to be described if this is not obvious from frame titles used.
Requirement 12.3Large blocks of information have to be divided into more manageable groups by using markup elements.
Requirement 12.4Labels have to be associated explicitly with their controls.
Standard 13Navigation mechanisms have to be clear and logical.
Requirement 13.1The target of each hyperlink has to be clearly identifiable.
Requirement 13.2Metadata have to be provided to add semantic information to webpages.
Requirement 13.3Information about the general structure and layout of a webpage has to be provided, e.g. by using a table of contents or a site map.
Requirement 13.4Navigation mechanisms have to be used in a logical and understandable manner.
Standard 14General understanding of the content offered has to be supported by appropriate measures.
Requirement 14.1The clearest and simplest language appropriate for a content has to be used.

Priority II

Standard 1For each auditory or visual content, suitable equivalent contents have to be provided fulfilling the same purpose or function as the original content.
Requirement 1.5For each active region of a client-side image map, redundant hypertext links have to be provided.
Standard 2Texts and graphics have to be understandable also when viewed without color.
Requirement 2.3Texts have to be designed in a way that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast on a black and white screen and when viewed by persons having color deficits.
Standard 3Markup language (in particular HTML ) and style sheets have to be used according to their respective specifications and formal definitions.
Standard 4Special linguistic features such as a change of language or abbreviations have to be identified.
Requirement 4.2The expansion of abbreviations and acronyms have to be specified where they first occur in a document and identified using the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Requirement 4.3The primary natural language of a document has to be identified using the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Standard 5Tables have to be described using the markup elements intended for this purpose and may generally only be used as data tables.
Requirement 5.5Summaries have to be provided for tables, using the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Requirement 5.6Abbreviations have to be provided for header labels, using the markup elements intended for this purpose.
Standard 6Webpages have to be usable also if newer technologies are not supported by the user agent used or if they are deactivated.
Standard 7Time-sensitive content changes have to be controllable for the user.
Standard 8Direct accessibility of user interfaces imbedded in webpages has to be ensured.
Standard 9Webpages have to be designed in a way as to work with functions which are usable independently of input or output devices.
Requirement 9.4A tab-navigable, understandable and logical order of hyperlinks, form controls and objects has to be created.
Requirement 9.5Keyboard shortcuts to hyperlinks which are essential for understanding the page (including those in client-side image maps), form controls and groups of form controls have to be provided.
Standard 10The usability of assistive technologies and browsers which no longer correspond to the state of the art has to be ensured, if this does not cause disproportionate expense.
Requirement 10.3For all tables laying out text in parallel, word-wrapped columns, a linear text alternative has to be provided.
Requirement 10.4Place-holding characters have to be included in empty controls in edit boxes and text areas.
Requirement 10.5Adjacent hyperlinks have to be separated by printable characters surrounded by spaces.
Standard 11The technologies used for creating a webpage are to be publicly accessible and fully documented, such as the technologies developed by the World Wide Web Consortium.
Requirement 11.4The user has to be provided information allowing her/him to receive documents according to her/his needs (e.g. language).
Standard 12The user has to be provided context and orientation information.
Standard 13Navigation mechanisms have to be clear and logical.
Requirement 13.5Navigation bars have to be provided in order to highlight and give access to the navigation mechanism used.
Requirement 13.6Hyperlinks which are related or connected in terms of content have to be grouped. Groups have to be clearly labeled and have to include a mechanism to bypass the group.
Requirement 13.7If search functions are offered, different types of searches have to be provided to the user.
Requirement 13.8Meaningful information has to be offered at the beginning of blocks of information related in terms of content (e.g. paragraphs, lists) in order to provide an overview of them.
Requirement 13.9If documents which are related in terms of content are offered separately, consolidated versions of these documents have to be provided.
Requirement 13.10Mechanisms have to be provided allowing to bypass ASCII art.
Standard 14General understanding of the content offered has to be supported by appropriate measures.
Requirement 14.2Text has to supplemented with graphic or auditory presentations where they facilitate comprehension of the information offered.
Requirement 14.3The style of presentation chosen has to be followed consistently.